The most severe cases of TMJ disorders consist of mandibular condyle degeneration.
Unfortunately, no regenerative options exists and current treatments do not restore full function.
The articulating tissue of the condyle is a fibrocartilage that consists of an intricate interface
between fibrous, cartilaginous, and boney tissue that is essential for normal function and that is
lost in severe TMJ disorders. The objective of this study is to regenerate fibrocartilage-bone
interface of the mandibular condyle in skeletally mature goats using a comprehensive tissue
engineering approach. A condylar defect will be treated with novel multilayer scaffold implant
designed to promote site-specific tissue regeneration. We have strong pilot in-vivo data
showing that our scaffolds components regenerate fibrous and cartilage tissue in our novel goat
model, and bone in a segmental defect model. We will implant the scaffolds in a mediolateral
grove-shaped condylar defect. We hypothesize that a multilayer scaffold will allow for site-
specific fibrous-cartilage-bone regeneration of the mandibular condyle cartilage when compared
to a homogenous sponge scaffold and untreated control defects. First, we will study the
properties of a multilayer scaffold design in-vitro. We will characterize the permeability and
release of TGFßs from the scaffold. Second, we will assess the functional healing of condylar
defects treated with the multilayer scaffolds. We will assess mechanical properties, regenerate
tissue composition, and condylar architecture formation using terminal assays at 1, 3 and 6
months post-surgery. Third, we will study the regeneration potential of three cell subpopulations
found on the condyle. Successful completion of this proposal is the critical step to provide a
regenerative therapy to treat TMJ mandibular cartilage degeneration, and a basis for successful
osteochondral tissue regeneration in other sites.