Resilience to brain aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a phenomenon whereby cognitive functioning is better than predicted based on chronological age, genetic risk and/or advanced neuropathology, likely because of the presence of as yet unidentified protective factors. These factors, once identified, are expected to provide key targets for treatment and prevention of AD. However, significant barriers limit discovery of the genetic mechanisms of resilience using human genetic methods alone, including: difficulties in identifying large numbers of individuals with asymptomatic AD, extracting age and interacting genetic effects from complex human genomes, controlling environmental factors, and obtaining brain tissue from asymptomatic AD cases. Moreover, it is well known that transcript abundance is not sufficient to infer protein abundance, as they differ spatially, temporally, and in response to learning tasks. Yet, our ability to discern how proteomes change across aging and AD progression is limited by the impossibility of longitudinal molecular analyses on human brain tissues, as well as the technology needed to profile cell type-specific proteomes associated with susceptibility versus resilience to AD. To fill these significant technological and knowledge gaps, here we will develop a robust pipeline using the most translationally relevant mouse models of human brain aging and AD (i.e., the AD-BXDs and their non-transgenic Ntg-BXDs controls) to obtain a longitudinal knowledge base of proteomes in specific cell types that we have found to exhibit robust changes in gene expression associated with highly susceptible and highly resilient phenotypes. We will focus on the hippocampus as it is required for spatial memory formation and recall in mice and humans, and hippocampus-dependent memory deficits are common in AD. Indeed, our work and preliminary data suggest that mouse strain differences in the age at onset and progression of cognitive deficits in the AD-BXDs (from extremely susceptible to resilient) result from cell type-specific differences in gene expression in the hippocampus. We will integrate these mouse data with clinical and omics data from NIA-sponsored AMP-AD and Resilience-AD Consortia to identify molecular drivers of cognitive resilience. In Aim 1, we will identify cell type-specific changes in neuron and microglia protein expression associated with resilience to AD using bioorthogonal non-canonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) in AD-BXDs. In Aim 2, we will translate drivers and molecular networks underlying cognitive resilience to human AD cohorts. In Aim 3, we will leverage the unmatched genetic engineering resources at The Jackson Laboratory to functionally validate ‘in-hand’ resilience candidates by determining their effects on memory, hippocampal neuronal excitability, and synaptic plasticity in CRISPRed AD-BXDs. Using this pipeline, we will thereby discover novel and translationally relevant proteins and complexes for consideration under AMP-AD/TREAT-AD drug discovery pipelines to delay or prevent cognitive symptoms in susceptible AD mice, and ultimately AD patients.