DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Many inner-city youth with challenging behavioral problems and their families experience extremely stressful circumstances related to poverty, under-resourced schools, substance abuse, lack of access to child mental health clinics, exposure to health epidemics, and community violence (Harrison et al, 2004; McKay & Bannon, 2004; Monuteaux, 2007). Nationwide, conduct difficulties account for 1/3 to 1/2 of all youth mental health referrals, with rates being even higher in children within urban communities (Frick, 1998; Loeber et al., 2000; Tolan et al., 1998). Therefore, the development of efficient and effective mental health services options for urban, low-income families with children displaying conduct difficulties is a national priority. Guided by Olin et al.'s (2010) adaptation of United Theory of Behavior (Jaccard et al 1999, 2002; Olin, 2010), a mixed-method research strategy will be utilized to explore possible adaptations to the empirically-based Multiple Family Group (MFG; McKay et al., 2004; 2010) service delivery as a potential alternative child mental health services approach for families who experience extreme psychosocial stressors. Study #1 will gather qualitative data from adult caregivers of inner-city youth (who report high levels of familial and psychosocial stress at baseline of the Parent Study) regarding factors that influence their involvement in the MFG service delivery model, as well as recommendations for improving the MFG service delivery model. Study #2 will involve a secondary analysis of the complete MFG dataset (available in 2011), assessing the effects of engagement as a mediator of multi-level stressors and child outcomes, service delivery, and family-level outcomes. Three separate hypotheses will be tested to explore the relationship between engagement in MFGs and multi-level stressors on family-level outcomes, child-level outcomes, and process characteristics of service delivery.